Consonants /r/ versus /ʤ/, 171 pairs     [ramjam.html]

The /r/ sound is spelled with <r>, <rr> or <wr> in wrist. The /ʤ/ sound is spelled with <j>, <ge> or <dge>. Notice how the homographs ragged and jagged are listed twice, once for each of their pronunciations.

This is a contrast between a retroflex continuant and an affricate, both voiced and both in the alveolar region of the mouth. It only ocurs initially or medially. Some of the medial pairs, such as barring/barging, only arise because of a linking -r introduced by the -ing inflection. In spite of the similarity, it is not a problem.

Interesting pairs include:

herring hedging
veritable vegetable

The mean density value is 1.4%. The lists make 86 semantic distinctions, a loading of 50%.

barring barging 
carries cadges 
charring charging 
direct deject 
  directed dejected 
  directing dejecting 
  directs dejects 
direction dejection 
erect eject 
  erected ejected 
  erecting ejecting 
  erects ejects 
erection ejection 
  erections ejections 
erring urging
goring gorging 
harry Hadji 
  harries Hadjis 
herring hedging 
lorries lodges 
purring purging 
rack jack 
  racked jacked 
  racking jacking 
  racks jacks 
racket jacket 
  rackets jackets 
rag jag 
  ragged jagged 
  ragging jagging 
  rags jags 
ragged jagged 
raid jade 
  raided jaded 
  raids jades 
rail gaol 
  railed gaoled 
  railing gaoling 
  rails gaols 
rain Jane 
rein Jane
reign Jane
rainy Janie 
raise J's  
raise jays
rake Jake 
  rakes jakes 
ram jam 
  rammed jammed 
  ramming jamming 
  rams jams 
ram jamb
  rams jambs
ran Jan 
rape jape 
  rapes japes 
raw jaw 
ray J 
  rays J's
ray jay 
  rays jays
re G 
reap jeep 
  reaps jeeps 
rear jeer 
  reared jeered 
  rearing jeering 
  rears jeers 
ref Geoff 
rend genned 
render gender 
  renders genders 
Rennes gen
rent gent 
  rents gents 
rental gentle 
rest jest 
  rested jested 
  resting jesting 
  rests jests 
ret jet 
  retted jetted 
  retting jetting 
Rhyl Gill 
rib jib 
  ribbed jibbed 
  ribbing jibbing 
  ribs jibs 
rig jig 
  rigged jigged 
  rigging jigging 
  rigs jigs 
rigger jigger 
  riggers jiggers 
riles Giles 
rim gym
  rims gyms 
rim Jim
rink jink
  rinks jinks 
rive jive 
  rived jived 
  rives jives 
  riving jiving 
roan Joan 
roar jaw
  roared jawed 
  roars jaws 
rob job
  robs jobs 
  robbed jobbed 
  robbing jobbing 
robber jobber 
  robbers jobbers 
robbery jobbery 
robe Job 
  robes Jobs 
rocky jockey 
roe Jo 
Ron John 
  Ronnie Johnny 
roo Jew
  roos Jews
root jute 
rot jot 
  rots jots 
  rotted jotted 
  rotting jotting 
rotter jotter 
  rotters jotters 
rove Jove 
row Joe
Roy Joy 
rudder judder 
  rudders judders 
Rudy Judy 
rue Jew 
  rues Jews
rug jug 
  rugs jugs 
rule jewel
  rules jewels
rule joule 
  rules joules 
rumble jumble 
  rumbled jumbled 
  rumbles jumbles 
  rumbling jumbling 
rump jump 
  rumps jumps 
rune June
  runes Junes 
ruse Jews
rut jut 
  ruts juts 
  rutted jutted 
  rutting jutting 
veritable vegetable 
wherries wedges 
wrangle jangle 
  wrangled jangled 
  wrangles jangles 
  wrangling jangling 
wren gen
  wrens gens
wriggle jiggle 
  wriggled jiggled 
  wriggles jiggles 
  wriggling jiggling 
wrist gist 
  wrists gists 

John Higgins, Shaftesbury, December 2010.